civilian control of the military example
- December 22, 2020
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The "Revolt of the Admirals" that occurred in 1949 was an attempt by senior US Navy personnel, to force a change in budgets directly opposed to the directives given by the Civilian leadership. A state's effective use of force is an issue of great concern for all national leaders, who must rely on the military to supply this aspect of their authority. The U. S. Department of State says, “Democracy is government in which power and civic responsibility are exercised by all citizens, directly or through their freely elected representatives. Institutions must be in place to check incompetent or malevolent leaders. This poses the paradox that "because we fear others we create an institution of violence to protect us, but then we fear the very institution we created for protection". Most importantly, no single branch of government ought to have control over any single aspect of governing. 13 Aug. 2011. . In some ways, the relationship between the military and the civil society it Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution says: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Office, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. Avant, Deborah. ... An example is the National Command Authority where the civilian presence and expertise is far less visible than the military component. The 83 percent disapproval rating was also the worst Gallup had measured in more than 30 years of tracking congressional job performances). As tactless as the General’s comments were, his comments spoke to an understandable deep-seated frustration within the U. S. military in Afghanistan and possessed a level of truth about Obama’s civilian officials that made the President decidedly uneasy. It is not to determine policy from the cocoon of the Pentagon, but to do what any administration tells it to do (Smith). He should have been reprimanded.  This autonomous professionalism, it is argued, best inculcates an esprit de corps and sense of distinct military corporateness that prevents political interference by sworn servicemen and -women. In The Soldier and the State, Huntington argued for what he termed "objective civilian control", "focus[ing] on a politically neutral, autonomous, and professional officer corps". Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.The reverse situation, where professional military officers control national politics, is called a military dictatorship. "Civilian control of the military is a basic principle of the American Con-stitution"; so runs the commonplace. Its chief position is to defend society, not define it (Kohn). ” Americans are fortunate to live in a democracy and an important facet of democracy is leadership.  In Mao's theory, the military—which serves both as a symbol of the revolution and an instrument of the dictatorship of the proletariat—is not merely expected to defer to the direction of the ruling non-uniformed Party members (who today exercise control in the People's Republic of China through the Central Military Commission), but also to actively participate in the revolutionary political campaigns of the Maoist era. ” Index Page – The U. S. Constitution Online – USConstitution. N. p. , n. d. Web.  The words of Georges Clemenceau, "War is too serious a matter to entrust to military men" (also frequently rendered as "War is too important to be left to the generals"), wryly reflect this view. James Madison, another writer of many of The Federalist papers, expressed his concern about a standing military in comments before the Constitutional Convention in June 1787: In time of actual war, great discretionary powers are constantly given to the Executive Magistrate. Most Americans don’t realize how special the civilian-military relationship is and how it has contributed to the country. The history of civil-military relations has not been without its own setbacks. The presence of a distinct civilian police force, militia, or other paramilitary group may mitigate to an extent the disproportionate strength that a country's military possesses; civilian gun ownership has also been justified on the grounds that it prevents potential abuses of power by authorities (military or otherwise). It is, in many ways, a starting point for civilian control.  Even more forceful are the words of Elbridge Gerry, a delegate to the American Constitutional Convention, who wrote that "[s]tanding armies in time of peace are inconsistent with the principles of republican Governments, dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and generally converted into destructive engines for establishing despotism.". Advocates of civilian control generally take a Clausewitzian view of war, emphasizing its political character. As Samuel Adams wrote in 1768, "Even when there is a necessity of the military power, within a land, a wise and prudent people will always have a watchful and jealous eye over it". ” Index Page – The U. S. Constitution Online – USConstitution. Moreover, the president is never a member of the armed services. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs is the top military commander under the president. In a 1929 essay On Correcting Mistaken Ideas in the Party, Mao explicitly refuted "comrades [who] regard military affairs and politics as opposed to each other and [who] refuse to recognize that military affairs are only one means of accomplishing political tasks", prescribing increased scrutiny of the People's Liberation Army by the Party and greater political training of officers and enlistees as a means of reducing military autonomy. Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution states that Congress shall have the power “to raise and support Armies …” and “to provide and maintain a Navy. Coming from a tradition of legislative superiority in government, many were concerned that the proposed Constitution would place so many limitations on the legislature that it would become impossible for such a body to prevent an executive from starting a war. The implication was that control of a large military force is, at best, difficult and expensive, and at worst invites war and division. He was highly respected and thought to be effective in strategies of counter-insurgency. The purely military aspects of the Commander-in-Chiefship were those that were originally stressed. Strong democratic control of the military is a prerequisite for membership in NATO. Help, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. But, one of the most distinguished roles the president of the United States has is the role of Commander-in-Chief of the military.  Affirmations of respect for the values of civilian control notwithstanding, the actual level of control sought or achieved by the civilian leadership may vary greatly in practice, from a statement of broad policy goals that military commanders are expected to translate into operational plans, to the direct selection of specific targets for attack on the part of governing politicians. A standing military force, with an overgrown Executive, will not long be safe companions to liberty. calls âobjective controlâ of the military by its civilian superiors. But, fired? Ambiguity over when the President could take military action without declaring war resulted in the War Powers Resolution of 1973. American presidents have used the power to dismiss high-ranking officers as a means to assert policy and strategic control. The Secretary of Defense answers to the president. The nation would otherwise be like the monarchy the framers worked so hard to get away from. The concept of civilian control of the U.S. military required by the law is one that dates to the nation's earliest days and reflects the balance of powers outlined in the Constitution. The act is often misunderstood to prohibit any use of federal military forces in law enforcement, but this is not the case. our expert writers, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample, Hi, my name is Jenn A military establishment larger than needed, tasked with missions beyond national defense, strains the trust between soldiers and society that must underlie stable civilian control. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing But this is possible only if the military is a profes-sional one. Dangers of fast food essay the of on essay control military An civilian. General Stanley McCrystal was the commander of troops and operations in Afghanistan. The danger of granting military leaders full autonomy or sovereignty is that they may ignore or supplant the democratic decision-making process, and use physical force, or the threat of physical force, to achieve their preferred outcomes; in the worst cases, this may lead to a coup or military dictatorship. It is the thesis of this article that the (liche could hardly be more inaccurate, for actually the American Constitution in the twentieth century obstructs the achievement of civilian control. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. 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